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CK-12 Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide. Using an open-content, web-based collaborative model termed the FlexBook®, CK-12 intends to pioneer the generation and distribution of high-quality educational content that will serve both as core text as well as provide an adaptive environment for learning, powered through the FlexBook Platform®. Copyright © 2014 CK-12 Foundation, www.ck12.org The names “CK-12” and “CK12” and associated logos and the terms “FlexBook®” and “FlexBook Platform®” (collectively “CK-12 Marks”) are trademarks and service marks of CK-12 Foundation and are protected by federal, state, and international laws. Any form of reproduction of this book in any format or medium, in whole or in sections must include the referral attribution link http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (placed in a visible location) in addition to the following terms. Except as otherwise noted, all CK-12 Content (including CK-12 Curriculum Material) is made available to Users in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC 3.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/3.0/), as amended and updated by Creative Commons from time to time (the “CC License”), which is incorporated herein by this reference. Complete terms can be found at http://www.ck12.org/terms. Printed: March 28, 2014

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C HAPTER

Chapter 1. Volume of Pyramids and Cones

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Volume of Pyramids and Cones

Learning Objectives • Find the volume of pyramids and cones.

Review Queue 1. Find the volume of a square prism with 8 inch base edges and a 12 inch height. 2. Find the volume of a cylinder with a diameter of 8 inches and a height of 12 inches. 3. Find the surface area of a square pyramid with 10 inch base edges and a height of 12 inches. Know What? The Khafre Pyramid is a pyramid in Giza, Egypt. It is a square pyramid with a base edge of 706 feet and an original height of 407.5 feet. What was the original volume of the Khafre Pyramid?

Volume of a Pyramid The volume of a pyramid is closely related to the volume of a prism with the same sized base. Investigation 11-1: Finding the Volume of a Pyramid Tools needed: pencil, paper, scissors, tape, ruler, dry rice. 1. Make an open net (omit one base) of a cube, with 2 inch sides.

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www.ck12.org 2. Cut out the net and tape up the sides to form an open cube.

3. Make an open net (no base) of a square pyramid, with lateral edges of 2.5 inches and base edges of 2 inches.

4. Cut out the net and tape up the sides to form an open pyramid.

5. Fill the pyramid with dry rice and dump the rice into the open cube. Repeat this until you have filled the cube? Volume of a Pyramid: V = 13 Bh.

Example 1: Find the volume of the pyramid.

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Chapter 1. Volume of Pyramids and Cones

Solution: V = 31 (122 )12 = 576 units3 Example 2a: Find the height of the pyramid.

Solution: In this example, we are given the slant height. Use the Pythagorean Theorem.

72 + h2 = 252 h2 = 576 h = 24 Example 2b: Find the volume of the pyramid in Example 2a. Solution: V = 13 (142 )(24) = 1568 units3 . Example 3: Find the volume of the pyramid.

Solution: The base of the pyramid is a right triangle. The area of the base is 12 (14)(8) = 56 units2 . V = 31 (56)(17) ≈ 317.33 units3 Example 4: A rectangular pyramid has a base area of 56 cm2 and a volume of 224 cm3 . What is the height of the pyramid? Solution:

1 V = Bh 3 1 224 = · 56h 3 12 = h 3

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Volume of a Cone Volume of a Cone: V = 31 πr2 h. This is the the same relationship as a pyramid’s volume with a prism’s volume.

Example 5: Find the volume of the cone.

Solution: First, we need the height. Use the Pythagorean Theorem.

52 + h2 = 152 √ √ h = 200 = 10 2 √ 1 V = (52 ) 10 2 π ≈ 370.24 3 Example 6: Find the volume of the cone.

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Chapter 1. Volume of Pyramids and Cones

Solution: We can use the same volume formula. Find the radius.

1 V = π(32 )(6) = 18π ≈ 56.55 3 Example 7: The volume of a cone is 484π cm3 and the height is 12 cm. What is the radius? Solution: Plug in what you know to the volume formula.

1 484π = πr2 (12) 3 121 = r2 11 = r

Composite Solids Example 8: Find the volume of the composite solid. All bases are squares.

Solution: This is a square prism with a square p pyramid on top. First, we need the height of the pyramid portion. Using the Pythagorean Theorem, we have, h = 252 − 242 = 7.

Vprism = (48)(48)(18) = 41472 cm3 1 Vpyramid = (482 )(7) = 5376 cm3 3 The total volume is 41472 + 5376 = 46, 848 cm3 . Know What? Revisited The original volume of the pyramid is 13 (7062 )(407.5) ≈ 67, 704, 223.33 f t 3 .

Review Questions • Questions 1-13 are similar to Examples 1-3, 5 and 6. • Questions 14-22 are similar to Examples 4 and 7. • Questions 23-31 are similar to Example 8. 5

www.ck12.org Find the volume of each regular pyramid and right cone. Round any decimal answers to the nearest hundredth. The bases of these pyramids are either squares or equilateral triangles.

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5. 6

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Chapter 1. Volume of Pyramids and Cones

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Find the volume of the following non-regular pyramids and cones. Round any decimal answers to the nearest hundredth.

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10. 11. base is a rectangle

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13. A regular tetrahedron has four equilateral triangles as its faces. Use the diagram to answer questions 14-16. Round your answers to the nearest hundredth.

14. What is the area of the base of this regular tetrahedron? 15. What is the height of this figure? Be careful! 16. Find the volume. A regular octahedron has eight equilateral triangles as its faces. Use the diagram to answer questions 17-21. Round your answers to the nearest hundredth.

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www.ck12.org 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Chapter 1. Volume of Pyramids and Cones

Describe how you would find the volume of this figure. Find the volume. The volume of a square pyramid is 72 square inches and the base edge is 4 inches. What is the height? If the volume of a cone is 30π cm3 and the radius is 5 cm, what is the height? If the volume of a cone is 105π cm3 and the height is 35 cm, what is the radius? The volume of a triangle pyramid is 170 in3 and the base area is 34 in2 . What is the height of the pyramid?

For questions 23-31, round your answer to the nearest hundredth. 23. Find the volume of the base prism.

24. Find the volume of the pyramid. 25. Find the volume of the entire solid. The solid to the right is a cube with a cone cut out.

26. Find the volume of the cube. 27. Find the volume of the cone. 28. Find the volume of the entire solid. The solid to the left is a cylinder with a cone on top.

29. Find the volume of the cylinder. 30. Find the volume of the cone. 31. Find the volume of the entire solid. 9

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Review Queue Answers 1. (82 )(12) = 768 in3 2. (42 )(12)π = 192π ≈ 603.19 3. Find slant height, l = 13. SA = 100 + 21 (40)(13) = 360 in2

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