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Chapter 1. Lesson 4.1 Solids, Liquids, Gases, and Plasmas
Lesson 4.1 Solids, Liquids, Gases, and Plasmas
Key Concept Matter can exist in four states: solid, liquid, gas, or plasma. Solids have a fixed volume and a fixed shape, liquids have a fixed volume but not a fixed shape, and gases have neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape. Like gases, plasmas lack a fixed volume and shape, but unlike gases, plasmas can conduct electricity and respond to magnetism. The state of matter depends on the kinetic energy of the particles of matter.
Standards • • • •
SCI.CA.8.PS.3.c, d, e MCR.6-8.SCI.8.3; MCR.6-8.SCI.9.1 NSES.5-8.B.3.1 AAAS.6-8.4.D.5, 6, 14; AAAS.6-8.4.E.4
Lesson Objectives • • • • •
Describe matter in the solid state. State properties of liquid matter Identify properties of gases. Describe plasma. Explain the relationship between energy and states of matter.
Lesson Vocabulary energy: ability to cause changes in matter gas: state of matter that has neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape kinetic energy: energy of moving matter kinetic theory of matter: theory that all matter consists of constantly moving particles liquid: state of matter that has a fixed volume but not a fixed shape plasma: state of matter lacking a fixed volume and fixed shape that contains ions so it can conduct electricity and respond to magnetism • solid: state of matter that has a fixed volume and fixed shape • states of matter: different forms (solid, liquid, gas, and plasma) in which matter can exist without the chemical makeup of matter changing • • • • • •
Teaching Strategies Introducing the Lesson
Introduce states of matter with this riddle: If an optimist sees a glass as half full and a pessimist sees the glass as half empty, how does a chemist see the glass? Call on students to answer the riddle. (The chemist sees the glass as completely full because it is half-full of liquid and half full of gas.) Tell the class they will learn about liquids, gases, and other states of matter in this lesson.
Use the classroom activity at the following URL to introduce states of matter at the molecular level. Students will construct models showing how water molecules are arranged in the three physical states. After the activity, they will be able to explain the molecular behavior of ice, water, and water vapor. • http://www.ucar.edu/learn/1_1_2_3t.htm
Demonstrate to the class how a liquid’s volume is fixed even though it takes the shape of its container. Pour a given volume of water from a measuring cup to a graduated cylinder. After students observe the volume and shape of the water in each container, ask them to describe how the shape changes.
Give less proficient readers the following open-ended cloze prompts to complete as they read the lesson. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
The four states of matter are __________. A solid is a state of matter that _________. Two basic types of solids are __________. A liquid is a state of matter that __________. Two special properties of liquids are __________. A gas is a state of matter that __________. A plasma is a state of matter that __________.
Ask a small group of students to create a Web site on energy and matter, beginning with the kinetic theory of matter and the relationship between energy and states of matter. Have students update the Web site with additional relevant information from later chapters of the FlexBook® resource as the school year progresses. Their Web site might include definitions, background information, images, and links to videos, animations, quizzes, and games. Encourage the rest of the class to make use of the Web site as they study energy and matter in the FlexBook® resource. 2
Chapter 1. Lesson 4.1 Solids, Liquids, Gases, and Plasmas
Model the kinetic theory of matter with this edible popcorn activity. Ask students to write up their observations and relate them to the theory. • http://teachers.net/lessons/posts/91.html Real-World Connection
Discuss a real-world application of matter in the plasma state. Explain the role of plasma in a plasma-display TV. In these devices, a difference in voltage is applied to a gas that is sandwiched between layers of glass in the display panel. When electric current flows through the gas, it changes to a plasma that emits light. You or your students can learn more at this URL: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/plasma-display1.htm
Reinforce and Review Lesson Worksheets
Copy and distribute the lesson worksheets in the CK-12 Physical Science for Middle School Workbook. Ask students to complete the worksheets alone or in pairs to reinforce lesson content. Lesson Review Questions
Have students answer the Review Questions listed at the end of the lesson in the FlexBook® student edition. Lesson Quiz
Check students’ mastery of the lesson with Lesson 4.1 Quiz in CK-12 Physical Science for Middle School Quizzes and Tests.
Points to Consider You read in this lesson that gases expand to fill their container. • What if gas were forced into a smaller container? Would it shrink to fit? • What other properties of the gas might change if its particles were crowded closer together?