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mixture may retain their individual properties when combined, or the ... properties, sand, shape, size, solid, solution, states of matter, substance, surface,.
equilibrium at 448Â°C if we start with 2.0 Ã 10â2 mol of HI, 1.0 Ã 10â2 mol of ... A. Strong acids and bases ... Example: 6m nitric acid is added to the following:.
Ionic Bonding and the Crystal Lattice. â¢ The extra ... are polar with a higher density of bonding electrons ... both bonds as well as the non-bonding valence shell ...
(A) temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the external ... (D) The solid phase always melts if the pressure increases at constant temperature. ... (B) Condensation ... The cooling curve for a pure substance as it changes f
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These three states of matter are common on Earth. ... are found in fluorescent lights, plasma TV screens, and plasma balls like the one that opened this chapter.
Vapor Pressures of Various Liquids. Temperature. (°C). Ethyl. Alcohol. (mmHg) ... Ex1. A beaker of benzene (C6H6) is at room temperature (20° C). What is its ...
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Mar 23, 2015 - Salt dissolves in H2O. b. A clear solution becomes a uniform color after a few drops of dye are added. c. Iron rusts. d. You clean your bedroom.
AP Chem Chapter 9 Notes: Solids and Liquids Intermolecular Forces I.
Gases: very ____________________, particles move _________ and are _______________________.
Liquid: ___________________, particles are ______________________________ but can still move.
Solid: ________________ arrangement, particles are __________ and ___________________________.
A substance's state at a certain temperature depends on the particle’s ability to overcome ____________________________ forces. A.
Gases: kinetic energy of the particles is _____________________________________ than the intermolecular forces of the particles. Particles are _____________________.
Liquid: kinetic energy of the particles is _____________than their intermolecular forces but not great enough for the particles to ________________________________ of each other. Particles are very ________________________________.
Solid: kinetic energy of the particles is _________ than the intermolecular forces of the particles. Particles are in motion but it is _____________. They are arranged in a regular (_________________) or irregular (____________________) pattern. Particles are very ______________________________.
Properties depend on the ________________ of ________________________ between the particles and their overall organization.
Intermolecular forces are _____________ than ionic/covalent bonds. A.
______________ energy is needed to _________or ____________ a substance than to actually break _______________.
These forces influence __________________________________.
At ________________________________ and _____________________________________, these forces become more important. (Remember real gases!?)
_______________________________ explains the differences in ___________________.
Types of IMF A.
(London) dispersion forces: 1.
Occurs in _______ molecules, but it is the ______________________________ in _____________________molecules. Page 1 of 6
Molecules that have _____________________________ moment can be ______________ to have one (they need to be close together). a. The electrostatic forces between the __________ and __________________ of molecules cause this. b. a.k.a_______________________________________.
What is actually happening: a. the _________________ of all molecules, as they come into _______________________ with each other, become _____________________. b. a molecule’s _________________________ affects the ___________________ of the intermolecular forces.
Strength of _____________________ force is directly proportional to molecular _______. Why? a. the ______________ a molecule is, the more __________________ it has. b. the more _______________ a molecule has, the more _______________________ it is!
__________ matters! More exposed surface = more contact = more induced _______________!
______ matters! The presence of a pi bond increases ________________________.
Dipole-dipole forces: 1.
Occurs in ______________ molecules
These are ________________ than dispersion forces.
The larger the ____________moment(electronegativity difference), the stronger the ________.
Hydrogen bonding 1.
Occurs in ____________ molecules that have an H-N, H-O or H-F bond (___________!)
__________________ than dipoledipole and dispersion forces.
Because of the attraction b/w the ____ and the _________________ on a small electronegative atom (N, O, F!)
Relative Strength of IMFs A.
Hydrogen bonding > Dipole-dipole forces > London dispersion forces
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If the type of intermolecular force is the same, molecular _______ will influence the boiling point. (more _____________________!)
If type and size is the same, ____________ will influence the boiling point. (more _________________!)
Strength of intermolecular forces gives rise to certain ___________________ of liquids and solids. A. B.
As the __________________ of the intermolecular forces of a gas _________________, they deviate more from _______________ behavior.
Phase Changes I.
Phase change review (see chart to the right)
Energy changes: A.
Heat of vaporization (ΔHvap): heat required to change a ____________ to a ___________ at its boiling point
Heat of fusion (ΔHfus): heat required to change a ____________ to a _____________ at its melting point.
Heat of vaporization (ΔHvap): heat required to change a liquid to a gas at its boiling point
Heat of fusion (ΔHfus): heat required to change a solid to a liquid at its melting point.
Temperature change (sloped areas)
Heating/Cooling Curves (q or E vs. T): A.
Used for heat (q) problems involving phase changes.
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Example: Calculate the enthalpy change upon converting 1.00 mol of ice at -25°C to water vapor (steam) at 125°C under a constant pressure of 1 atm. The specific heats of ice, water, and steam are 2.09 J/g-K, 4.18 J/g-K and 1.84 J/g-K, respectively. For H2O, ΔHfus = 6.01 kJ/mol and ΔHvap = 40.67 kJ/mol.
What is the enthalpy change during the process in which 100.0 g of water at 50.0°C is cooled to ice at –30.0°C? (Use the specific heats and enthalpies for phase changes given in Sample Exercise 11.4.)
Phase Diagrams (P v. T): A.
Lines (AD, AB, AC) represent points where phase _____________ or phase ___________________ occur.
Triple point (A): P and T where _________ ______________________ are in equilibrium.
Critical point (B): Created by the critical temperature and critical pressure. Above this point, __________ and __________ are indistinguishable.
Melting points: Line AD.
Boiling points: Line AB.
Sublimation points: Line AC.
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Vapor Pressure I.
At any ________________________, some ____________ molecules have enough energy to _______________. A.
The pressure caused by these “escaped” molecules is known as ________________________________.
As temperature _____________________, __________ molecules escape, _____________________ the vapor pressure.
In a sealed container, the liquid and vapor are in dynamic ____________________________ (the substance ____________________ and _______________________ at the same rate)
Boiling Point: _______________________ at which ______________ pressure equals ______________________ pressure. Normal boiling point: temperature at which ______________________________ equals ___________ (a.k.a. the pressure at _____________________).
Estimate the boiling point of diethyl ether under an external pressure of 0.80 atm.
At what external pressure will ethanol have a boiling point of 60°C?
Look at the chart….
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Answering AP questions: A.
Relate response to __________________________________________ and/or ___________________
Many times, it's all about the ____________________ (_______________________________)!
Memorize the covalent network solids:
Alloys: _____________________ of metals. A.
___________________________ alloy (One type of atom _________________ another in the metallic matrix). Ex:
___________________________ alloy (One type of atom _____________________________ in a metallic matrix). Ex:
Special case: Semiconductors
silicon is “____________” with other _________________ to improve __________________________.
Polarity and Solubility I.
“Like dissolves like” (do not use these words on the AP exam – use technical terminology from below!) A.
____________ dissolves ____________ and ____________________ dissolves ____________________.
Therefore, polar _________________________________ nonpolar and vice versa.
Substances with similar ______________________________________________ tend to be ____________________________________ in one another.