Ecology Review Worksheet‐ KEY 1. Place the levels of ecology organization inside the correct circles using the terms from section 13.1 Popul Orga Comm Ecosystem Biome ation nism unity 2. Fill in the bubbles with the proper words from section 13.2 in the textbook. Ecosystem includes Biotic Abiotic Such as Such as Plants Animals Sun/Wind Water/Rain Soil/Rocks
3. Match the biome to its description:
a. Arctic Tundra Has a layer of permafrost, and despite little rainfall, is flooded in the summer. b. Tropical Rainforest Warm temperatures and abundant rainfall year round. Lush thick forest contains the greatest amount of biodiversity of all the biomes. c. Taiga Has long cold winters and short warm summers. Coniferous trees are dominant in this biome. d. Grassland Occurs in a variety of climates. The main plant life is grass; few trees and shrubs are present. e. Deciduous Forest Found between polar and tropic regions; the trees here are very seasonal and the soil is very rich in nutrients f. Desert Dry (arid) climate with little precipitation. There are warm/hot days and cooler nights.
4. In each series, identify which word does NOT belong and explain why? a. Detritivore, Producer, or Decomposer? Explain: PRODUCER does not belong because it is an autotroph, while the other two are heterotrophs that feed on dead organic matter and return nutrients to the soil. b. Omnivore, Autotroph, Herbivore? Explain: AUTOTROPH does not belong because it is a producer, while the other two are types of consumers. c. Trophic level, Energy pyramid, Keystone species? Explain: KEYSTONE SPECIES does not belong because it is an organism that has a great impact on its ecosystem, while trophic levels are levels of nourishment that can be used to show/compare how energy flows within an energy pyramid. 5. Add at least 12 arrows to the food web; show the direction energy travels in a community of species.
6. Using the snake, create 2 complete food chains in the spaces below. Label each trophic level.
Food chain 1 There are various answers There are three trophic levels in this food chain (producer) (primary consumer) (secondary consumer) Grass Æ Field Mouse Æ Snake
Food chain 2 There are various answers There are four trophic levels in this food chain (producer) (primary consumer) (secondary consumer) (tertiary consumer) Grass Æ rabbit Æ Snake Æ Eagle
7. CIRCLE the example of HABITAT and UNDERLINE the example of NICHE: In the African savanna, elephants help structure their environment. In their everyday movements, elephants destroy trees, making room for grass and many other plant species to grow. 8. List at least 3 technologies that have helped the human population grow? b. _ Farming Techniques a. Medical Technologies
1. Fill in the chart with a description that describes how water moves through as ecosystem.
Description Liquid water (H2O) comes down to the Earth as rain, snow, hail, etc Water (H2O) changes from a liquid to a gas
Water (H2O) vapor (gas) released (evaporates) from the leaves of plants
Water (H2O) vapor (gas) condenses, forming clouds
2. Explain how carbon moves from autotrophs Æ consumers Æ decomposers. What role do fossil fuels play? CO2 (carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere is taken in by plants to make sugars during photosynthesis, herbivores/omnivores eat the plants’ stored sugars (C6H12O6), carnivores eat the herbivores/omnivores who ate the plants, when consumers die decomposers break them down and absorb their body’s stored carbon (remember the 4 types of organic molecules); not all the carbon is absorbed by decomposers, some is released into the soil and after millions of years it can help to form fossil fuels. When Humans harvest fossil fuels and use them for energy CO2 is rereleased into the atmosphere. Cycle repeats. Too much CO2 in atmosphere throws cycle out of balance. 3. Which two major processes are involved in the oxygen cycle? a. Cellular Respiration b. Photosynthesis 4. Explain how phosphorous is obtained & moves through the following food chain: Grass Æ Rabbit Æ Fox
Rocks weather and release phosphorous into the soil; plants absorb phosphate through their roots; rabbits (herbivores) eat the plants and obtain phosphate, foxes (carnivores) eat the rabbits and obtain phosphate. 5. What is nitrogen fixation? Why is it important?
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which BACTERIA convert gaseous nitrogen (N2) into a usable form of nitrogen for other organisms. 6. What is biodiversity? Give at least one reason/example as to why it is important to humans? The variety of living things (species) living in an ecosystem. Biodiversity keeps ecosystems stable (like food webs). 7. What are the consequences to a loss of biodiversity? A loss of biodiversity means species are disappearing which can lead to ecosystems becoming unstable or unbalanced,
8. Define the vocabulary words in the boxes below:
Symbiotic A close relationship between 2 different species of organisms
Mutualism Mutualism Both organisms benefit
Commensalism Commensalism One organism benefits, while the other is neither harmed or benefits
Parasitism Parasitism One organism benefits, while the other is harmed
Example Example Whales and barnacles (Barnacles live on whales and whales are not harmed nor benefit)
Example Example Tapeworm & Human (endoparasitism) or Tick & deer (ectoparasitism). Both Tapeworm/Tick harm host
Example Example Butterflies and Flowers (Butterflies get nectar, while the flowers get pollinated)
9. For the paragraph on Succession, fill in the blanks using the words provided: abiotic factors ecosystems lichen pioneer species
climax community quicker succession soil
fire primary succession secondary succession moss
lava slower rock intact
(a) Ecosystems are constantly changing. Both (b) abiotic and biotic factors change in every ecosystem. One type of ecosystem change is called (c) succession. This results in one community replacing another over time. This process might begin on bare rock formed from the cooling of molten (d) lava. This process begins when (e) lichen & (f) moss, also known as the (g) pioneer species, begin living on and breaking down bare rock. When these organisms die, their remains mix with the rock pieces to form a thin layer of (h) soil. This process of establishing and developing an ecosystem in a previously uninhabited area is called (i) primary succession. The mature community that eventually forms is called the (j) climax community. Sometimes that community is destroyed by a (k) fire. A new community will replace the destroyed one through the process of (l) secondary succession. This process happens much (m) quicker because the soil is usually left (n) intact.
10. Label and define the 3 stages of population growth in the graph below. Carrying capacity
Exponential Growth High birth rates due to natural selection & resources. Species well adapted.
greatest number of individuals that the environment can sustain Birth & death rates eventually balance
species slowly adapting
11. Match the graph with the appropriate pattern/term.
a. Label each trophic level b. How much energy is available to the rabbit? 5,320 kcal c. What happens to the rest of the energy at each trophic level? Lost as heat
Rabbit- primary (1˚ ) consumer
14. What is missing from most food webs and energy pyramids, but is absolutely necessary in each ecosystem? Decomposers‐ they return nutrients to the soil 15. In what way(s) do humans through the phosphorus cycle out of balance? Excess P from fertilizers released in runoff, which causes too much algae growth (can harm ecosystems & reduce biodiversity) 16. Which process occurs naturally, and is necessary to sustain life on earth, but is currently “kicked in overdrive” because of human contribution? Greenhouse effect